必修5 Unit 1
JOHH SHOW DEFEATS “KIG CHOLERA”
John Snow was a famous doctor in London - so expert12岁女孩的胸, indeed, that he attend
ed Queen Victoria as her personal physician. But he became inspired when he tho
ught about helping ordinary people exposed to cholera. This was the deadly dise
ase of its day. either its cause nor its cure was understood. So many thousand
s of terrified people died every time there was an outbreak. John Snow wanted t
o face the challenge and solve this problem. He knew that cholera would never b
e controlled until its cause was found.
He became interested in two theories that possibly explained how cholera ki
lled people. The first suggested that cholera multiplied in the air. A cloud of
dangerous gas floated around until it found its victims. The second suggested
that people absorbed this disease into their bodies with their meals. From the
stomach the disease quickly attacked the body and soon the affected person die
John Snow suspected that the second theory was correct but he needed eviden
ce. So when another outbreak hit London in 1854, he was ready to begin his enqu
iry. As the disease spread quickly through poor neighbourhoods, he began to gat
her information. In two particular streets, the cholera outbreak was so severe
that more than 500 people died in ten days. He was determined to find out why.
First he marked on a map the exact places where all the dead people had liv
ed. This gave him a valuable clue about the cause of the disease. Many of the d
eaths were near the water pump in Broad Street (especially numbers 16无锡装饰, 7, 8 a
nd 40). He also noticed that some houses (such as 20 and 21 Broad Street and 8
and 9 Cambridge Street) had had no deaths. He had not foreseen this, so he made
further investigati. He discovered that these people worked in the pub at 7
Cambridge Street. They had been given free beer and so had not drunk the water
from the pump. It seemed that the water was to blame.
ext, John Snow looked into the source of the water for these two streets.
He found that it came from the river polluted by the dirty water from London. H
e immediately told the astonished people in Broad Street to remove the handle f
rom the pump so that it could not be used. Soon afterwards the disease slowed d
own. He had shown that cholera was spread by germs and not in a cloud of gas.
In another part of London, he found supporting evidence from two other deat
hs that were linked to the Broad Street outbreak. A woman下巴长痘痘是什么原因, who had moved away f
rom Broad Streetsnug, liked the water from the pump so much that she had it deliver
ed to her house every day. Both she and her daughter died of cholera after drin
king the water. With this extra evidence John Snow was able to announce with ce
rtainty that polluted water carried the virus.
To prevent this from happening again, John Snow suggested that the source o
f all the water supplies be examined. The water companies were instructed not t
o expose people to polluted water any more. Finally
COPERICUS’ REVOLUTIORRY THEORY
icolaus Copernicus was frightened and his mind was confused. Although he h
ad tried to ignore them, all his mathematical calculati led to the same conc
lusion: that the earth was not the centre of the solar system. Only if you put
the sun there did the movements of the other planets in the sky make sense. Yet
he could not tell anyone about his theory as the powerful Christian Church wou
ld have punished him for even suggesting such an idea. They believed God had ma
de the world and for that reason the earth was special and must be the centre o
f the solar system.
The problem arose because astronomers had noticed that some planets in the
sky seemed to stop, move backward and then go forward in a loop. Others appeare
d brighter at times and less bright at others. This was very strange if the ear
th was the centre of the solar system and all planets went round it.
Copernicus had thought long and hard about these problems and tried to find
an answer. He had collected observati of the stars and used all his mathema
tical knowledge to explain them. But only his new theory could do that. So betw
een 1510 and 1514 he worked on it苏宁电器营业时间, gradually improving his theory until he felt
it was complete.
In 1514 he showed it privately to his friends. The changes he made to the o
ld theory were revolutionary. He placed a fixed sun at the centre of the solar
system with the planets going round it and only the moon still going round the
earth. He also suggested that the earth was spinning as it went round the sun a
nd this explained changes in the movement of the planets and in the brightness
of the stars. His friends were enthusiastic and encouraged him to publish his i
deas光环, but Copernicus was cautious. He did not want to be attacked by the Christ
ian Church, so he only published it as he lay dying in 154.
Certainly he was right to be careful. The Christian Church rejected his the
ory米线的危害, saying it was against God's idea and people who supported it would be atta
cked. Yet Copernicus' theory is now the basis on which all our ideas of the uni
verse are built. His theory replaced the Christian idea of gravitypvc胶袋厂, which said
things fell to earth because God created the earth as the centre of the univers
e. Copernicus showed this was obviously wrong. ow people can see that there is
a direct link between his theory and the work of Isaac ewton告诉google, Albert Einstein
and Stephen Hawking.
必修5 Unit 2
PUZZLES I GEOGRAPHY
People may wonder why different words are used to describe these four count
ries: England, Wales, Scotland and orthern Ireland. You can clarify this quest
ion if you study British history.
First there was England. Wales was linked to it in the thirteenth century.
ow when people refer to England you find Wales included as well. ext England
and Wales were joined to Scotland in the seventeenth century and the name was c
King James of Scotland became King of England and Wales as well. Finally the En
glish government tried in the early twentieth century to form the United Kingdo
m by getting Ireland connected in the same peaceful way. However铁路交通图, the southern
part of Ireland was unwilling and broke away to form its own government. So onl
y orthern Ireland joined with England与性, Wales and Scotland to become the United
Kingdom and this was shown to the world in a new flag called the Union Jack.
To their credit the four countries do work together in some areas (eg, the
currency and international relati), but they still have very different insti
tuti. For example, orthern Ireland重庆周边哪里好玩, England and Scotland have different edu
cational and legal systems as well as different football teams for competiti
like the World Cup!
England is the largest of the four countries, and for convenience it is div
ided roughly into three zones. The zone nearest France is called the South of E
ngland, the middle zone is called the Midlands and the one nearest to Scotland
is known as the orth. You find most of the population settled in the south, bu
t most of the industrial cities in the Midlands and the orth of England. Altho
ugh杨家火锅, nationwide, these cities are not as large as those in China, they have wor
ld-famous football teams and some of them even have two! It is a pity that the
industrial cities built in the nineteenth century do not attract visitors. For
historical architecture you have to go to older but smaller towns built by the
Romans. There you will find out more about British history and culture.
The greatest historical treasure of all is London with its museums巴厘岛旅游报价, art col
lecti王者荣耀刘备, theatres, parks and buildings. It is the centre of national governmen
t and its administration. It has the oldest port built by the Romans in the fir
st century AD, the oldest building begun by the Anglo-Sax in the 1060s and t
he oldest castle ctructed by later orman rulers in 1066. There has been fou
r sets of invaders of England. The first invaders网络图绘制软件, the Romans王艺诺, left their towns
and roads. The second, the Anglo-Sax, left their language and their governm
ent. The third, the Vikings, influenced the vocabulary and place-names of the
orth of England, and the fourth嘉鱼县, the ormans什么是牛皮藓, left castles and introduced new w
ords for food.
If you look around the British countryside you will find evidence of all th
ese invaders. You must keep your eyes open if you are going to make your trip t
o the United Kingdom enjoyable and worthwhile.
SIGHTSEEIG I LODO
Worried about the time availablea股纳入msci, Zhang Pingyu had made a list of the sites
she wanted to see in London. Her first delight was going to the Tower. It was
Wales and Scotland to become the United Kingdom and this was shown to the world in a new flag called the Union Jack. To their credit the four countries do work together in some areas (eg
gradually improving his theory until he felt it was complete. In 1514 he showed it privately to his friends. The changes he made to the old theory were revolutionary. He placed a fixed sun at the centre of the solar system with the planets going round it and only the moon still going round the earth. He also suggested that the earth was spinning as it went round the sun and this explained changes in the movement of the planets and in the brightness of the stars. His friends were enthusiastic and encouraged him to publish his ideas光环
who had moved away from Broad Streetsnug